The four main forms of academic writing are descriptive, analytical, critical and persuasive.

  • Editör: Webmaster - Çarşamba, Ağustos, 2019

The four main forms of academic writing are descriptive, analytical, critical and persuasive.

In several texts that are academic will need to use more than one type. For example, in an thesis that is empirical

  • you will use critical writing when you look at the literature review to exhibit where there is certainly a gap or opportunity within the research that is existing
  • The methods section shall be mostly descriptive to summarise the methods used to gather and analyse information
  • the results section will undoubtedly be mostly descriptive and analytical you collected as you report on the data
  • the discussion section is much more analytical, while you relate your findings back into your research questions, as well as persuasive, as you propose your interpretations associated with findings.


The type that is simplest of academic writing is descriptive. Its purpose is always to provide facts or information. A good example could be a listing of a write-up or a written report for the total results of an experiment.

The sorts of instructions for a assignment that is purely descriptive: identify, report, record, summarise and define.


It’s rare for a text that is university-level be purely descriptive. Most writing that is academic also analytical. Analytical writing includes descriptive writing, you also re-organise the facts and information you describe into categories, groups, parts, types or relationships.

Sometimes, these categories or relationships seem to be part of the discipline, sometimes you will definitely create them designed for your text. For instance, if you’re comparing two theories, you may break your comparison into several parts, for instance: how each theory relates to social context, how each theory deals with language learning, and how each theory can be utilized in practice.

The kinds of instructions for an assignment that is analytical: analyse, compare, contrast, relate, examine.

To produce your writing more analytical:

  • spend plenty of time planning. Brainstorm the facts and ideas, and try various ways of grouping them, according to patterns, parts, similarities and differences. You could utilize colour-coding, flow charts, tree diagrams or tables.
  • Create a true name for the relationships and categories you find. As an example, pros and cons.
  • build each section and paragraph around among the analytical categories.
  • result in the structure of your paper clear to your reader, simply by using topic sentences and a introduction that is clear.
  • Generally in most academic writing, you have to go at least one step further than analytical writing, to persuasive writing. Persuasive writing has all of the features of analytical writing (that is, information plus re-organising the data), with the help of your point that is own of. Most essays are persuasive, and there is a element that is persuasive at least the discussion and conclusion of a study article.

    Points of view in academic writing can include a disagreement, a recommendation, interpretation of findings or evaluation of this work of others. Each claim you make needs to be supported by some evidence, for example a reference to research findings or published sources in persuasive writing.

    The kinds of instructions for a assignment that is persuasive: argue, evaluate, discuss, take a posture.

    To help reach finally your own point of view from the facts or ideas:

    • read several other researchers’ points of look at the topic. That do you are feeling is the most convincing?
    • search for patterns when you look at the data or references. Where is the evidence strongest?
    • list several different interpretations. Which are the real-life implications of each one? Those that are usually most useful or beneficial? Which ones have some problems?
    • Discuss the known facts and ideas with somebody else. Do you agree with their point of view?

    To produce your argument:

    • list the reasons that are different your point of view
    • consider the numerous kinds and sourced elements of evidence that can be used to support your point of view
    • Consider ways that are different your point of view is similar to, and different from, the points of view of other researchers
    • look for different ways to split your point of view into parts. For instance, cost effectiveness, environmental sustainability, scope of real-world application.

    To present your argument, be sure:

    • your text develops a coherent argument where all the individual claims come together to support your overall point of view
    • your reasoning for every claim is clear into the reader
    • your assumptions are valid
    • you have evidence for each and every claim you make
    • you utilize evidence this is certainly convincing and directly relevant.

    Critical writing is common for research, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate writing. This has all of the features of persuasive writing, with all the added feature of at least one other point of view. While persuasive writing requires you to have your very own point of view on an issue or topic, critical writing requires you to definitely consider at the least two points of view, as well as your own.

    For instance, you might explain a researcher’s interpretation or argument and then evaluate the merits of this argument, or give your personal alternative interpretation.

    Types of critical writing assignments include a critique of a journal article, or a literature review that identifies the strengths and weaknesses of existing research. The sorts of instructions for critical writing include: critique, debate, disagree, evaluate.

    • accurately summarise all or area of the work. This may include identifying the main interpretations, assumptions or methodology.
    • have a viewpoint in regards to the work. Appropriate forms of opinion could include pointing out some problems with it, proposing an approach that is alternative would be better, and/or defending the work resistant to the critiques of others
    • provide evidence for your point of view. With regards to the specific assignment and the discipline, different sorts of evidence might be appropriate, such as for instance logical reasoning, mention of the authoritative sources and/or research data.

    Critical writing requires strong writing skills. You will need to thoroughly comprehend the topic in addition to issues. You will need to develop an essay structure and paragraph structure that allows you to definitely analyse different interpretations and build your own argument, supported by evidence.